Manmohan Singh\u00a0(born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the\u00a0Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the First Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.\u00a0Born in Gah (now in Punjab, Pakistan), Singh's family migrated\u00a0to India during its partition in 1947. After obtaining his Doctorate\u00a0in Economics from Oxford, Singh worked for the United Nations\u00a0during 1966\u201369. He subsequently began his bureaucratic career\u00a0when Lalit Narayan Mishra hired him as an Advisor in the\u00a0Ministry of Foreign Trade. Over the 70s and 80s, Singh held\u00a0several key posts in the Government of India, such as Chief\u00a0Economic Advisor (1972\u201376), Reserve Bank Governor\u00a0(1982\u201385) and Planning Commission Head (1985\u201387).\r\n\r\nIn 1991, as India faced a severe economic crisis, newly elected\u00a0Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao surprisingly inducted the apolitical Singh into his\u00a0cabinet as Finance Minister. Over the next few years, despite strong opposition, he as a\u00a0Finance Minister carried out several structural reforms that liberalised India's economy.\u00a0Although these measures proved successful in averting the crisis, and enhanced\u00a0Singh's reputation globally as a leading reform-minded economist, the incumbent\u00a0Congress party fared poorly in the 1996 general election. Subsequently, Singh served\u00a0as Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of India's Parliament)\u00a0during the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government of 1998\u20132004.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nIn 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) came to power, its\u00a0chairperson Sonia Gandhi unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan\u00a0Singh. Singh's first ministry executed several key legislations and projects, including the\u00a0Rural Health Mission, Unique Identification Authority, Rural Employment Guarantee\u00a0scheme and Right to Information Act. In 2008, opposition to a historic civil nuclear\u00a0agreement with the United States nearly caused Singh's government to fall after Left\u00a0Front parties withdrew their support. Although India's economy grew rapidly under UPA, its security was threatened by several terrorist incidents (including the 2008 Mumbai\u00a0attacks) and the continuing Maoist insurgency.\r\n\r\nThe 2009 general election saw the UPA return with an increased mandate, with Singh\u00a0retaining the office of Prime Minister. Over the next few years, Singh's second ministry\u00a0government faced a number of corruption charges\u2014over the organisation of the\u00a0Commonwealth Games, the 2G-spectrum allocation and the allocation of coal blocks.After his term ended in 2014 he opted out from the race to the office of the Prime\u00a0Minister of India during 2014 Indian general election. Singh was never a member of the\u00a0Lok Sabha but continues to serve as a member of the Indian Parliament, representing\u00a0the state of Assam in the Rajya Sabha for the fifth consecutive term since 1991.